By David Romano, Mehmet Gurses (eds.)
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Extra info for Conflict, Democratization, and the Kurds in the Middle East: Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and Syria
17 (Jamestown Foundation), September 4, 2008. 65. html, accessed on August 25, 2013. CHAPTER 2 Iraq, Arab Nationalism, and Obstacles to Democratic Transition Ozum Yesiltas Introduction Ten years after the forcible removal of Saddam Hussein’s regime, there is still a lot of controversy over the prospects for democracy in Iraq. Although the twentieth century witnessed several periods of democratic experiment in Iraq under the administration of both the monarchical and republican governments, the focus on a unified sense of Iraqi nationalism built around a distinctly Arab narrative remained largely unchanged.
4. On the development of the modern Republic of Turkey, see Bernard Lewis, The Emergence of Modern Turkey, 2nd edn. (London: Oxford University Press, 1968); Feroz Ahmad, The Making of Modern Turkey (London: Routledge, 1993); and Erik Zurcher, Turkey: A Modern History, 2nd edn. B. Tauris, 1997). 5. “Government and Opposition United over the Semdinli Affair,” Briefing (Ankara), November 28, 2005, p. 2. 6. For background, see the proceedings of the ninth annual international conference of the EU Turkey Civic Commission (EUTCC), “The Kurdish Question in Turkey: Time to Renew the Dialogue and Resume Direct Negotiations,” December 5–6, 2012, European Parliament, Brussels, Belgium.
De Turkey, Kemalism, and the “Deep State” M 35 7. The Copenhagen Criteria require that EU candidates should have achieved “the stability of institutions guaranteeing democracy, the rule of law, human rights and respect for and protection of minorities . . ” Copenhagen European Council, “Conclusions of the Presidency,” June 21–22, 1993. 8. For a recent background analysis, see Michael M. Gunter, “Turkey’s Floundering EU Candidacy and Its Kurdish Problem,” Middle East Policy 14 (Spring 2007), pp.
Conflict, Democratization, and the Kurds in the Middle East: Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and Syria by David Romano, Mehmet Gurses (eds.)