By William Stallings
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Extra info for Comunicaciones y Redes de Computadores, Sexta Edicion
Thus, all of the genetic code beyond the insertion or deletion will be incorrect. Obviously, this will have a profound effect on the characteristics of the gene product. It should be noted that single nucleotide differences between individuals are very common. A difference in one nucleotide at a specific site in DNA, when compared to the ‘common sequence’ found in a population, is referred to as a ‘single nucleotide polymorphism,’ or SNP. The analysis of SNPs in specific genes has become a common feature in the rapidly growing field of molecular epidemiology.
However, some DNA damage may escape repair or, worse, be repaired incorrectly, and thus cause a mutation in the cell. If the mutated gene is important in the regulation of cell division, it may result in a change rate in cell growth a chenge rate and/or cell differentiation. There are certain genes present in all cells, called proto-oncogenes, which when altered by mutation are changed from a normal cell into a precancerous cell. 38 Introduction to Principles of Toxicology There are genes that normally function to inhibit cell division, called tumor suppressor genes.
For rodent studies, 10 animals of each sex are usually used at each dose, whereas for dogs three dosages and three to four animals per sex are used. The chemical is typically administered for 14 days, after which the animals are killed and complete clinical chemistry and histopathology analyses are performed. 4 Subchronic Studies Most toxicity assessment protocols call for a more prolonged administration of chemical than is done with the 14-day subacute study. Typically, such subchronic exposure studies last for 90 days.
Comunicaciones y Redes de Computadores, Sexta Edicion by William Stallings