By editor-in-chief, Charlene A. McQueen
In additional than a decade because the e-book of the 1st variation of complete Toxicology, an explosive elevate within the wisdom of the consequences of chemical and actual brokers on organic platforms has resulted in an elevated realizing of ordinary mobile features and the implications in their perturbations. Revised and up to date to mirror new advances in toxicology study and together with content material by means of a number of the prime researchers within the box, the 14-volume moment version of entire Toxicology is still the preferable source for toxicologists in academia, drugs, and firms. instead of giving an alphabetical directory of compounds, complete Toxicology moment version presents a special organ-systems constitution that enables the person to discover the poisonous results of varied ingredients on each one human method, supporting in delivering diagnoses and proving crucial in occasions the place the poisonous substance is unknown yet its results on a procedure are visible. accomplished Toxicology moment variation is the main whole and useful toxicology paintings on hand to researchers this present day. Contents up-to-date and revised to mirror advancements in toxicology researchOrganized with a different organ-system approachFeatures complete colour throughoutAvailable electronically on sciencedirect.com, in addition to in a limited-edition print model
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Extra info for Comprehensive Toxicology - Fourteen-Volume Set electronic resource
Thus, all of the genetic code beyond the insertion or deletion will be incorrect. Obviously, this will have a profound effect on the characteristics of the gene product. It should be noted that single nucleotide differences between individuals are very common. A difference in one nucleotide at a specific site in DNA, when compared to the ‘common sequence’ found in a population, is referred to as a ‘single nucleotide polymorphism,’ or SNP. The analysis of SNPs in specific genes has become a common feature in the rapidly growing field of molecular epidemiology.
However, some DNA damage may escape repair or, worse, be repaired incorrectly, and thus cause a mutation in the cell. If the mutated gene is important in the regulation of cell division, it may result in a change rate in cell growth a chenge rate and/or cell differentiation. There are certain genes present in all cells, called proto-oncogenes, which when altered by mutation are changed from a normal cell into a precancerous cell. 38 Introduction to Principles of Toxicology There are genes that normally function to inhibit cell division, called tumor suppressor genes.
For rodent studies, 10 animals of each sex are usually used at each dose, whereas for dogs three dosages and three to four animals per sex are used. The chemical is typically administered for 14 days, after which the animals are killed and complete clinical chemistry and histopathology analyses are performed. 4 Subchronic Studies Most toxicity assessment protocols call for a more prolonged administration of chemical than is done with the 14-day subacute study. Typically, such subchronic exposure studies last for 90 days.
Comprehensive Toxicology - Fourteen-Volume Set electronic resource by editor-in-chief, Charlene A. McQueen