By Klaas-Jan de Langen
Compact Low-Voltage and High-Speed CMOS, BiCMOS and BipolarOperational Amplifiers discusses the layout of built-in operational amplifiers that strategy the bounds of low provide voltage or very excessive bandwidth. The ensuing realizations span the total box of purposes from micro-power CMOS VLSI amplifiers to 1-GHz bipolar amplifiers.
The booklet provides effective circuit topologies to be able to mix excessive functionality with uncomplicated strategies. In overall twelve amplifier realizations are mentioned. bipolar amplifiers are mentioned, a 1-GHz operational amplifier and an amplifier with a excessive ratio among the utmost output present and the quiescent present. 5 amplifiers were designed in CMOS know-how, super compact circuits which can function on provide voltages right down to one gate-source voltage and saturation voltages which equals approximately 1.4 V and, ultimate-low-voltage amplifiers which could function on provide voltages all the way down to one gate-source voltage and one saturation voltage which quantities to approximately 1.2 V. In BiCMOS expertise 5 amplifiers were designed. the 1st amplifiers are in line with a compact topology. different amplifiers are designed to function on low offer voltages right down to 1.3 V. the ultimate amplifier has a unity-gain frequency of 2 hundred MHz and will function all the way down to 2.5 V.
Compact Low-Voltage and High-Speed CMOS, BiCMOS and BipolarOperational Amplifiers is meant for the pro analog dressmaker. additionally, it's compatible as a textual content e-book for complex classes in amplifier design.
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Extra resources for Compact Low-Voltage and High-Speed CMOS, BiCMOS and Bipolar Operational Amplifiers
5 V, depending on technology. A simple feedforward method to control the g111 of the input stage is obtained by applying two current switches as shown in bipolar technology in Fig. 2-7 [9, I 0]. The advantage of such a feedforward control is that no control loop is needed in which delay would be introduced. Therefore, the bandwidth of a rail-to-rail input stage using this principle can be high. In this circuit the current switches Q11 , Q13 remove the current that is not needed in such a way that the sum of the tail currents is constant, as can be concluded by evaluating the translinear loop consisting of the PNP input transistors Q1, Q2; the PNP current switch Q11 ; the NPN current switch Q13 ; and the NPN input transistors Q3, Q4 .
The output-voltage swing is limited to the supply voltage minus two base emitter voltages and two saturation voltages in bipolar technology, while in CMOS technology the output-voltage swing is limited to the supply voltage minus two gate-source voltages and two saturation voltages. Therefore, rail-torail output stages should be used consisting of two complementary output transistors connected in a common-emitter or common-source configuration, yielding a near rail-torail output swing. As discussed above, the separate feedforward biasing principle is useful for application in these circuits.
1l1 Vee - - - - - - - + - - - - - 1 l J VEE Fig. 3-7 Feedfonvard class-AB control complementary output stage. princtple applied to a The feed forward biasing principle is shown in Fig. 3-7 where it is applied to a complementary bipolar output stage. The technique consists of a reference voltage VREF that is directly used to drive the sum of the base-emitter voltages of the two output stages. To obtain a supply-voltage independent quiescent current, VREF must track the supply voltage. Because the base-emitter voltages of the two output transistors of the complementary output stage are connected together, the technique is especially suited to application in the complementary output stage.
Compact Low-Voltage and High-Speed CMOS, BiCMOS and Bipolar Operational Amplifiers by Klaas-Jan de Langen