Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development's Can Cars Come Clean? Strategies for Low-Emission Vehicles PDF

By Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development

ISBN-10: 926410495X

ISBN-13: 9789264104952

Show description

Read or Download Can Cars Come Clean? Strategies for Low-Emission Vehicles PDF

Best automotive books

Download e-book for kindle: Fahrzeugakustik by Martin Pflüger, Franz Brandl, Ulrich Bernhard, Karl

Die Fahrzeugakustik beeinflusst die Entscheidung des Kunden beim Autokauf. Daher haben akustische Fragen beim Fahrzeugentwicklungsprozess inzwischen einen hohen Stellenwert. Das Buch wendet sich an Einsteiger in die Fahrzeugakustik in Ausbildung und Praxis sowie Personen, die in ihren Entscheidungen akustische Eigenschaften mit ins Kalkül ziehen müssen.

Sustainable Automotive Technologies 2012: Proceedings of the - download pdf or read online

The publication on Sustainable automobile applied sciences goals to attract designated consciousness to the examine and perform all in favour of new applied sciences and ways in a position to assembly the demanding situations to sustainable mobility. particularly, the ebook positive aspects incremental and radical technical developments which are in a position to meet social, monetary and environmental pursuits in either neighborhood and international contexts.

Download PDF by John Basham: 4WD Survival Guide

Four wheel drive Survival consultant is a very revised and up to date variation of the definitive advisor to four-wheel using. writer John Basham stocks his targeted wisdom that will help you care for the a number of demanding situations of traveling throughout Australia on your four-wheel force. riding talents, troubleshooting and upkeep are all coated utilizing case reviews, checklists, recommendation, information and cautions.

Additional info for Can Cars Come Clean? Strategies for Low-Emission Vehicles

Example text

Across the countries of Western Europe). x Development of lead-free petrol to prevent damage to catalytic converters and to reduce lead exposure in the population (because lead is a poison). x Drastic reduction of the sulphur content in fuels to improve the efficiency and durability of emission control systems. Lead-free (unleaded) petrol was introduced in the 1970s in the United States and at the beginning of the 1980s in Japan, Sweden and Switzerland. In Europe, lead-free petrol appeared in 1985.

CAN CARS COME CLEAN? 11. Trends in emissions of volatile organic compounds emissions in the United States (1970-1999) 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 99 19 97 19 19 95 93 19 89 91 19 19 19 19 80 Light-Duty Petrol Vehicles Light-Duty Petrol Trucks Heavy-Duty Petrol Trucks Diesels 70 (1000 short tons) On-road VOC emissions Source: US EPA (1999). 2. g. Euro 3 or equivalent) can be attributed to the following sources: cold start, air-to-fuel ratio (lambda) excursions, effect of ambient temperatures, off-cycle operation and warm conversion of the catalyst.

Existing vehicles For the next 15-20 years, from the viewpoint of pollutant emissions, the presence of “old” technology vehicles in the fleet will continue to be the major problem, as they emit very high levels of pollutants by comparison with the new technology vehicles that will replace them. In the Netherlands, for instance, it is estimated that 99% of traditional pollutants emitted by the current fleet come from older vehicles not fitted with catalysts (“Euro 0”). Their high contribution also reflects that the emissions of local pollutants from cars in use deteriorate with time and mileage.

Download PDF sample

Can Cars Come Clean? Strategies for Low-Emission Vehicles by Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development


by George
4.2

Rated 4.47 of 5 – based on 45 votes