By Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development
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Additional info for Can Cars Come Clean? Strategies for Low-Emission Vehicles
Across the countries of Western Europe). x Development of lead-free petrol to prevent damage to catalytic converters and to reduce lead exposure in the population (because lead is a poison). x Drastic reduction of the sulphur content in fuels to improve the efficiency and durability of emission control systems. Lead-free (unleaded) petrol was introduced in the 1970s in the United States and at the beginning of the 1980s in Japan, Sweden and Switzerland. In Europe, lead-free petrol appeared in 1985.
CAN CARS COME CLEAN? 11. Trends in emissions of volatile organic compounds emissions in the United States (1970-1999) 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 99 19 97 19 19 95 93 19 89 91 19 19 19 19 80 Light-Duty Petrol Vehicles Light-Duty Petrol Trucks Heavy-Duty Petrol Trucks Diesels 70 (1000 short tons) On-road VOC emissions Source: US EPA (1999). 2. g. Euro 3 or equivalent) can be attributed to the following sources: cold start, air-to-fuel ratio (lambda) excursions, effect of ambient temperatures, off-cycle operation and warm conversion of the catalyst.
Existing vehicles For the next 15-20 years, from the viewpoint of pollutant emissions, the presence of “old” technology vehicles in the fleet will continue to be the major problem, as they emit very high levels of pollutants by comparison with the new technology vehicles that will replace them. In the Netherlands, for instance, it is estimated that 99% of traditional pollutants emitted by the current fleet come from older vehicles not fitted with catalysts (“Euro 0”). Their high contribution also reflects that the emissions of local pollutants from cars in use deteriorate with time and mileage.
Can Cars Come Clean? Strategies for Low-Emission Vehicles by Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development