By Allen Hicken
This publication addresses the query of why a celebration method with a modest variety of nationally orientated political events emerges in a few democracies yet now not others. The variety of events and nationalization are the made of coordination among citizens, applicants, and get together leaders inside of neighborhood electoral districts and coordination between applicants and elites throughout districts. applicants and electorate can do and do coordinate in the neighborhood based on electoral incentives, yet coordination throughout districts, or aggregation, usually fails in constructing democracies. A key contribution of this e-book is the advance and trying out of a thought of aggregation incentives that makes a speciality of the payoff to being a wide occasion and the likelihood of shooting that payoff. The ebook will depend on in-depth case stories of Thailand and the Philippines, and on large-n research to set up its arguments.
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Additional info for Building Party Systems in Developing Democracies
I also establish that the deterioration of the two-party system in the Philippines after the fall of Marcos is primarily due to aggregation failures – an explanation that outperforms existing theories of why this change occurred. I also show that the fall in the number of parties since 2000 in Thailand is almost completely a function of improved aggregation. Finally, I demonstrate that the variation of aggregation over time and cross-nationally is consistent with the theory of aggregation incentives outlined earlier.
What factors aid or impede the incentives and ability of actors to coordinate across districts? When would actors choose to join a larger national party over a smaller party and vice versa? To begin with, candidates, faction leaders, and entrepreneurs might be driven by a concern over the potential risks and rewards associated with an aggregation strategy or its alternatives. If they join with a larger party, they will increase the joint probability of getting into power, but at the risk of having to share that power with other actors within the party.
Countries with similar cleavage structures can have very different national party systems. , Ecuador, with less heterogeneity than India, has worse aggregation). In addition, since cleavage structures change very slowly they usually cannot adequately account for intra-country variation in aggregation over time. I argue that the influence of social cleavages on cross-district coordination can be understood in much the same way as their influence on intra-district coordination. 9 I turn my attention now to these other variables, beginning with the payoff for aggregation.
Building Party Systems in Developing Democracies by Allen Hicken