By VIEN, Gerhard A. Holzapfel, Ray W. Ogden
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Additional info for Biomechanics of Soft Tissue in Cardiovascular Systems
The left panel of Figure 15 demonstrates typical pressure-radius relations obtained under normal conditions (solid curve) and under an active condition (dashed curve) (Hayashi et at. (1980b )). These data were obtained while the specimen was maintained at the in vivo length (in vivo axial extension ratio, see below) that was measured inside the body before excision. The relation under the normal condition was obtained in a Krebs-Ringer solution which is analogous to the normal environment inside the body (physiological condition).
When a negative pressure is applied to the tip of the micropipette, the cell is drawn toward and slightly into the pipette (Figure 20). First, a negative pressure of about 2 mm H 2 0 is set by using the micrometer, and then a portion of the EC surface is aspirated into the micropipette. In preliminary experiments, the aspirated part of the surface continued to deform after the application of pressure, but an almost steady state was observed to occur within 8 to 10 minutes. Therefore, the negative pressure is maintained for 10 minutes at each setting, and the image of the aspirated portion of the cell is taken with a TV camera connected to the microscope.
A part of the tube between the micropipette and the reservoir is connected to a pressure transducer for the measurement of the pressure level in the micropipette system. Endothelial cell (EC) suspension is loaded into a cell chamber (2 mm height, 10 mm width) which is held by a manipulator. The suspended cells are observed through a long working distance objective lens under the microscope. The tip of the micropipette is made to approach the surface of a spherical EC by manipulating both the cell chamber and the stage of the microscope.
Biomechanics of Soft Tissue in Cardiovascular Systems by VIEN, Gerhard A. Holzapfel, Ray W. Ogden