By P. Neuenschwander, C. Borgemeister, J. Langewald
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Additional resources for Biological Control in IPM Systems in Africa (Cabi Publishing)
Feeding by the weevil and its larvae destroys the tender young shoots causing poor growth and distortion of trees in plantations. An entomologist was sent to Australia, where the weevil is not a pest, and he soon found an egg-parasitoid, Anaphes nitens (Girault) (Hymenoptera, Mymaridae). This along with other parasitoids was shipped to South Africa, but it was the only one to be successfully bred and released. By 1935, it had achieved economic control in all areas except the Highveld. Gradually the parasitoid seems, however, to have adapted to the cooler conditions at higher altitudes and control has substantially improved (Tribe, this volume).
A change to non-persistent organophosphate insecticides, timed to coincide with peak adult leafminer numbers, allowed biological control of the mealybug to be re-established (Bess, 1964). However, spraying of copper fungicides for control of coffee berry disease was implicated in initiating outbreaks of a native species, Icerya pattersoni Newstead, in the early 1980s. Investigations showed that the principal natural enemy is a ladybird, Rodolia iceryae Janson, and efforts by growers to conserve this ladybird and other natural enemies resulted in a reduction in numbers of I.
Crassipes Control in Africa (IMPECCA) also including South Africa, Malawi, Nigeria, Bénin and Egypt. , this volume). Another invasive pest, the larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus, which appeared in Tanzania in 1981 and shortly afterwards in Togo, spread into neighbouring countries causing devastating damage to stored maize and other crops. Major research programmes were initiated in West Africa in collaboration with the German Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), IITA and several national programmes, and in East Africa with the British Natural Resources Institute (NRI) and the national programmes of this region.
Biological Control in IPM Systems in Africa (Cabi Publishing) by P. Neuenschwander, C. Borgemeister, J. Langewald