By Thomas Lengauer, Raimund Mannhold, Hugo Kubinyi, Hendrik Timmerman
Offers a huge, application-oriented assessment of this know-how. The state of the art in bioinformatics is evaluated both from an international view by way of introducing actual software eventualities.
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Additional resources for Bioinformatics. From Genomes to Drugs
Above all, the theory of evolution tells us that gene sequences may have derived from common ancestral sequences. Thus it is of interest to trace the evolutionary history of mutations and other evolutionary changes. 3 Pairwise sequence comparison tion. For example, the number of mutations, insertions, and deletions of bases necessary to transform one DNA sequence into another one is a measure re¯ecting evolutionary relatedness. On the other hand, a comparison may be more pragmatic in that it is not aimed at a detailed reconstruction of the evolutionary course of events but rather aims at pinpointing regions of common origin which may in turn coincide with regions of similar structure or similar function.
It is so hard, that today experimental procedures that go directly after protein sequences are developed to help along the way. The latter problem currently concentrates on the regions upstream of sequences that encode proteins. e. their translation to proteins. Both problems can be considered basic research problems and scienti®c grand challenges. Numerous other annotations are desirable, such as the annotation of genomic sequences with homologous sequences in the same or dierent species, the distinction between orthologous1) and paralogous2) sequences.
Every new target protein raises the questions, which of all of these compounds would be the best drug candidate. Nature is using billions of molecules. With the new technology of combinatorial chemistry, where compounds can be synthesized systematically from a limited set of building blocks, this number of potential drug candidates is also becoming accessible to the laboratory. We will now give a short summary of the history of research on both of these questions. 3 Finding protein targets Question 1 could not really be asked realistically until a few years ago.
Bioinformatics. From Genomes to Drugs by Thomas Lengauer, Raimund Mannhold, Hugo Kubinyi, Hendrik Timmerman