New PDF release: Benz Motor Cars

Каталог авто компании Benz Motor autos за 1909 год.

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For driving at a steady speed, one cannot choose any operating point for the engine—rather there is a specific amount of power needed to maintain the chosen speed. A manual transmission lets the driver choose between several points along the curve. In the turbo diesel example, one can see that too low a gear will move the engine into a high-rpm, low-torque region in which the efficiency drops off rapidly, and thus best efficiency is achieved near the higher gear. In a gasoline engine, efficiency typically drops off more rapidly than in a diesel because of throttling losses, and the trend discussed here is even more dramatic.

With forged crankshafts, vanadium microalloyed steels are mostly used as these steels can be air cooled after reaching high strengths without additional heat treatment, with exception to the surface hardening of the bearing surfaces. The low alloy content also makes the material cheaper than high alloy steels. Carbon steels are also used, but these require additional heat treatment to reach the desired properties. Iron crankshafts are today mostly found in cheaper production engines (such as those found in the Ford Focus diesel engines) where the loads are lower.

However fuel-injected two-strokes achieve better engine lubrication, also cooling and reliability should improve considerably A piston and its connecting rod. CAD drawing of crankshaft and pistons. 5 m incl. connecting rod). e. steam pressure acts alternately on each side of the piston) and the admission and release of steam is controlled by slide valves, piston valves or poppet valves. Steam engines pistons are nearly always comparatively thin discs, essentially; their diameter is several times their thickness.

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Benz Motor Cars

by Edward

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