New PDF release: Astronomy 123: galaxies and expanding universe (lecture

By Schombert J.

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Normal waves look with this: having no beginning and no end. A composition of several waves of different wavelength can produce a wave packet that looks like this: So a photon, or a free moving electron, can be thought of as a wave packet, having both wave-like properties and also the single position and size we associate with a particle. There are some slight problems, such as the wave packet doesn't really stop at a finite distance from its peak, it also goes on for every and every. Does this mean an electron exists at all places in its trajectory?

A butterfly in South America influences storms in the North Atlantic). html (4 of 9) [15-02-2002 22:34:38] entropy Although this is `just' a mathematical game, there are many examples of the same shape and complex behavior occurring in Nature. html (5 of 9) [15-02-2002 22:34:38] entropy Individual descriptions are called trajectories, statistical descriptions of groups are called ensembles. Individual particles are highly deterministic, trajectories are fixed. Yet ensembles of particles follow probable patterns and are uncertain.

The whole range of wavelengths is called the electromagnetic spectrum. e. html (14 of 16) [15-02-2002 22:34:26] newtonian physics, electromagnetism click here to see interference movie Doppler effect: The Doppler effect occurs when on object that is emitting light is in motion with respect to the observer. The speed of light does not change, only the wavelength. If the object is moving towards the observer the light is ``compressed'' or blueshifted. If the object is moving away from the observer the light is ``expanded'' or redshifted.

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Astronomy 123: galaxies and expanding universe (lecture notes) by Schombert J.


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