By R. P. Balda, I. M. Pepperberg, A. C. Kamil
During this booklet, the editors assemble effects from experiences on all types of animals to teach how pondering on many behaviors as actually cognitive techniques might help us to appreciate the biology concerned. Taking principles and observations from the whereas variety of analysis into animal habit results in unforeseen and stimulating rules.
A area is created the place the paintings of box ecologists, evolutionary ecologists and experimental psychologists can have interaction and give a contribution to a better knowing of complicated animal habit, and to the advance of a brand new and coherent box of analysis.
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Additional info for Animal Cognition in Nature: The Convergence of Psychology and Biology in Laboratory and Field
Evolution 34, 76-91. Endler, J. A. (1990) On the measurement and classification of colour in studies of animal colour patterns. Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 41, 315-352. Ewald, P. W. (1994) Evolution of Infectious Disease. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Gallistel, C. R. (1990) The Organization of Learning. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Gallistel, C. R. (1992) Classical conditioning as a nonstationary, multivariate time series analysis: a spreadsheet model. Behav. Res. Meth. Instrum. Comput. 24, 340-351.
The exploitation of pine seeds by species of the family Corvidae is a common occurrence in the western USA. , 1995). This is powerful fuel to sustain these birds through the long, cold, unproductive winter. The behavior of nutcrackers and Pinyon Jays is immediately altered at the sight of these cones or seeds as they abruptly stop all other behaviors and begin harvesting. These birds spend vast amounts of time and energy harvesting, transporting and caching these seeds. This dramatic change in behavior is a clue that these pine seeds are of special biological significance, at least to some of these corvids.
Cones are easily located as they face outward and upward on the tips of branches, and their seeds are held tightly in the cone scale after opening. These traits make it relatively easy for the birds to collect large numbers of seeds (Vander Wall and Balda, 1977). In these years, it is as if the trees are bearing their crop of pine seeds in a manner that facilitates harvesting by jays and nutcrackers (Smith and Balda, 1979; Balda, 1980a). In sharp contrast to these years of bountiful production, there are periodic lean years.
Animal Cognition in Nature: The Convergence of Psychology and Biology in Laboratory and Field by R. P. Balda, I. M. Pepperberg, A. C. Kamil