By Simon Hug
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Additional resources for Altering Party Systems: Strategic Behavior and the Emergence of New Political Parties in Western Democracies
The demands of the NSDAP were at first quite vague, but became more specific in the program that was adopted at the founding meeting of the NSDAP in 1920. This program sketched out in 25 points the ideas of the Nazi movement. 19 Later these demands became even more specific and Hitler publicized them in the party's newspaper:20 Already on September 18, 1922, shortly after Luedecke met with Mussolini on Hitler's request, Hitler, according to a report in the V61kischen Beobachter, formulated the following demands, which proved to be decisive for his policies: Punishing of the November-criminals, death penalty for profiteers and informers, informing the population about the peace treaty and the question of guilt, expulsion of Jews, remedy of housing needs, ending of the national dishonor and naming of streets and places after German heroes.
In 1974, the government presented plans to construct three new plants. This announcement led to serious reactions of the environmental movements and several demonstrations took place. One group demanded a five-year moratorium in the decision making on the development nuclear energy (Jamison, Eyerman, Cramer, and Laessoe 1990,157). The government reacted in a conciliatory way, backed down from its plan (van der Heijden 1992, 152), and created a forum where energy problems were discussed. This took away much of the direct confrontation between the anti-nuclear activists and the government, and clearly stimulated a more co-operative attitude on the part of the environmentalists towards the established political system.
The choice of a game-theoretic model is further warranted by the fact that the interaction between established parties and their potential challengers takes place in a well-structured environment. Questions of access to the electoral process, of the criteria of forming parties, and of the appointment of candidates in elections, are largely determined by institutions. In such environments, game-theoretic models are especially well suited, since the choices available to the actors are relatively well defined.
Altering Party Systems: Strategic Behavior and the Emergence of New Political Parties in Western Democracies by Simon Hug