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4 “I am reading this text V It is raining” is a true proposition (regardless of whether it is actually raining or not). 5 Implication Given two propositions P, Q, the proposition denoted by P Q (expressed as “P implies Q”) is called an implication (alternate notation: P → Q). 4). 4. 4. 5 • “I am reading this text It is raining” is a proposition (its truth value depends on whether it is actually raining or not). • “I am reading this text I am not here” is a false proposition. • “I am not reading this text The circle is a square” is a true proposition (albeit that one would rarely formulate such a sentence in everyday speech).
Apart from examples, a number of exercises and problems are also proposed at the end of the chapter. They are IR-oriented, and are included to improve understanding and show how logic, sets, and relations are/can be applied in IR. Solutions are given at the end of the book (in Chapter 12). At the end of the chapter, the literature referred to, as well as recommended, is listed. 1 Elements of Mathematical Logic The main goal of logic has always been the study of reasoning, proof, and truth. In the eighteenth century, the German mathematician Gottfried W.
After proving that any tree as well as any document can be transformed into a lattice, we show that the DocBall model and Galois (concept) lattice representations of a document are equivalent to one another. Based on these results as well as on the fact that the structure of any site is a lattice, we present a method to compute site importance. 7 Exercises and Problems Exercises and problems are found at the end of every chapter (apart from Chapters 1 and 7). These are, of course, IR-oriented, and they are designed to help the reader better understand and deepen his/her knowledge of the concepts and methods discussed as well as their applications in practice.
Algebraization of Hamiltonian systems on orbits of Lie groups