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By David Williamson

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It was hoped that Bizonia would become so prosperous that through inter-zonal trade it would gradually attract and knit the French and Russian zones in a united national German economy. A more prosperous Germany would then be able to pay the reparations, which had been demanded at Potsdam (see page 39). In an attempt to convince the USSR that Bizonia was not an embryonic state the offices responsible for food, finance and transport were deliberately located in different cities. The Break-up of the Grand Alliance 1945–7 | 47 Key question Key terms What events led to the formulation of the Truman Doctrine?

Not only did he strongly criticise Soviet policy in Poland, but in May he abruptly ended the lend–lease aid programme, which had made available food and armaments to the USSR during the war. ‘Christmas Card’ 1945 by the Egyptian-born cartoonist Kem (Kimon Evan Marengo). It shows Truman (as the Statue of Liberty) with Stalin, Attlee, de Gaulle and Chiang Kai-shek. 38 | Europe and the Cold War 1945–91 Profile: Harry S. Truman 1884–1972 – – – – 1884 1917–18 1922 1934 – – 1944 1945 April 12 1947 1948 1950 March 12 – – – 1951 1952 1972 – – – Born in Lamar, Missouri Served in the US army in France Joined the Democratic Party Elected to the Senate to represent the state of Missouri Became Vice-President Became President of the USA on Roosevelt’s death Announced the Truman Doctrine Elected President for a second term Committed US forces to defend South Korea Refused to extend the war to China Retired Died Truman was a key character in the Cold War since, as a result of Roosevelt’s sudden death, he was catapulted into power.

Truman feared above all that the Communists might launch a similar uprising in Italy once Allied troops had left after the signing of the peace treaty (see page 41). He felt therefore that he had to act quickly to strengthen nonCommunist forces in areas that were vulnerable to Soviet pressure, but to do this he required money, which could only be found by persuading Congress to vote the necessary funds. Key question The announcement of the Doctrine Congress The US parliament. What were the main points of the Truman Doctrine?

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Access to History. Europe and the Cold War 1945-1991 by David Williamson

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