By Harry W. Hazard, Norman P. Zacour
A definitive background of the Crusades, spanning 5 centuries, encompassing Jewish, Moslem, and Christian views
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Additional info for A History of the Crusades, Vol. 6: The Impact of the Crusades on Europe, Together with a Bibliography of the Crusades
The office of chamberlain was created only in 1478 and had no judicial and administrative role, but they held a seat in the council as Prussian senators and received profits from landed property. 18 Most other officials, after the Polish pattern, held royal sinecures attached to functions which had become purely honorary, like the cup-bearer, the carver, the sword-bearer and the ensign. The ambition of the Prussian Landesrat to maintain as high a degree of judicial and political self-government as possible resulted in its election of all aldermen and members of the district and municipal assessorial courts, while the city courts elected or co-opted their members from among the urban political elite represented in the city councils.
PolandLithuania was an elective monarchy, de jure since the fourteenth century, de facto from 1572, when during the interregnum following the death of the last Jagiel56 57 Michael G. Miiller, 'Zweite Reformation und stadtische Autonomie im Koniglichen PreuBen. , Berlin: Freie Universitat, 1993, pp. 60-5. It has meanwhile appeared in print (Berlin: Colloquium, 1998). I am grateful to Professor Muller for having allowed me to read his typescript. Heinz Schilling, 'Confessionalisation in the Empire: Religious and Societal Change in Germany between 1555 and 1620', in his Religion, Political Culture and the Emergence of Early Modern Society.
16 Introduction 'republic' was not directed against monarchy - as long as its ruler did not exceed his strictly limited powers. Many political organisations containing elements of republican theory did very well within the framework of monarchy. 62 The great economic and political influence of the urban elites in the Royal Prussian cities was not only exceptional in the Polish-Lithuanian 'noble republic', it also lay at the root of numerous conflicts between the province and the rest of the realm.
A History of the Crusades, Vol. 6: The Impact of the Crusades on Europe, Together with a Bibliography of the Crusades by Harry W. Hazard, Norman P. Zacour